Whooping Cough - Pertussis * NEW!
Animal Bites and Rabies
Michigan law requires that animal bites be reported promptly to your Local Health Department for evaluation and follow-up. Rabies is preventable if vaccine is administered soon after exposure, but it is nearly always 100% fatal once symptoms begin.
Rabies is a viral disease of mammals most often transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. The vast majority of rabies cases reported to the CDC each year occur in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. In Michigan, bats are the most commonly found carriers of the rabies virus.
The rabies virus infects the brain and central nervous system. Early symptoms in people are similar to that of many other illnesses, including fever, headache, and general weakness or discomfort. As the disease progresses, more specific symptoms appear and may include insomnia, anxiety, confusion, slight or partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hypersalivation, difficulty swallowing, and hydrophobia. Death usually occurs within days of the onset of these latter symptoms.
- MDCH Flow Chart: Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Protocol
- MDCH Flow Chart: Protocol for Dogs, Cats, Ferrets, or Livestock Possibly Exposed to Rabies
- MDCH Rabies Website
- CDC Rabies Website
Foodborne Illness in the U.S. is most commonly caused by Norovirus, followed by Salmonella, Clostridium, and Campylobacter. However, more than 250 foodborne illnesses have been identified. Certain food handling and preparation methods are more likely than others to spread disease. Food safety and investigation activities are an integral part of both the Personal Health and Environmental Health Divisions at DHD#10.
- MDCH Foodborne Illness Website
- CDC Foodborne Illness Website
- USDA Current Food Safety Recalls and Alerts
- FDA Recalls, Market Withdrawals, and Safety Alerts
HIV, Hepatitis, and STD’s
- MDCH STD, HIV, and Viral Hepatitis Website
- What You Need to Know about Michigan’s New HIV Testing Law, January 2011
- For Patients: What You Need to Know about HIV Testing Brochure
- CDC STD Webpage
- CDC 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines, MMWR 12-17-2010
- *NEW* 8-10-2012 Update to CDC's STD Treatment Guidelines of 2010:
- Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections
- CDC Recommendations for Partner Services Programs for HIV Infection, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydial Infection, MMWR 10-30-2008
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Lyme disease is primarily diagnosed based on symptoms, together with a history of known or possible exposure to infected ticks. Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics.
- MDCH Lyme Disease Website
- Tick-Borne Illness in Michigan
- Michigan Tick Testing Flow Chart
- CDC Lyme Disease Website
West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause encephalitis and/or meningitis. The virus has been detected in Michigan each year since 2001, primarily infecting and multiplying in birds. It has been found in more than 162 species of birds; however corvids (crows and blue jays) are most commonly affected. When the level of virus circulating among birds and mosquitoes becomes high, humans and other mammals can also become infected, often without causing clinical signs.